Pair Lesson Plans | Fox and SCES, Year One
PAIR Activities: ENVIRONMENTS, ENSEMBLE SQUASH
Learning Objective/Exit Outcomes:
- Students will review landforms created by constructive/destructive forces.
- Students will differentiate between landforms based on their shape and the way they were created.
- Students will learn the term “ensemble” and understand how an ensemble works together in a theatrical experience.
Integration Area/Subject: Science
S5E1. Students will identify surface features of the Earth caused by constructive and destructive processes.
a. Identify surface features caused by constructive processes: Deposition (Deltas, sand dunes, etc.), Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Faults
b. Identify and find examples of surface features caused by destructive processes: Erosion (water—rivers and oceans, wind), Weathering, Impact of organisms, Earthquake, Volcano
Some open space is required, but the activity can be modified based on the available space in the room. In Ms. Hattaway’s room, we will either take turns playing the game as small groups in the front of the room, or we will go to the green space outside and play in small groups simultaneously.
Lesson is based on ENVIRONMENTS and ENSEMBLE SQUASH.
Begin by introducing the concept of “ensemble” to the class. An ensemble is a group of people who work together to achieve the same goal–a key concept in the theatre world.
Play ENVIRONMENTS as usual, based on the space available. Maybe half the class will be able to play at a time. Let the first half try one, then let the remaining half try an example before debriefing. The initial examples should be typical environments with a mixture of living and nonliving things: jungle, ocean, park, outer space, desert, forest, etc.
DEBRIEF: What did you notice as you were playing/observing this activity? Did you see or experience a moment where someone else really supported the choice someone else made? How?
Explain that you are now going to play the game with CONSTRUCTIVE and DESTRUCTIVE forces. **If desired, a brief example of PUSHING AGAINST EACH OTHER (Augusto Boal exercise) can be used to demonstrate these forces**
Begin with 1 or 2 straightforward examples, but be sure to include in sidecoaching HOW these are formed, and what the created the landform: wind erosion, glacier slowly melting, river carving through over time, etc.
Up the challenge level of the game by adding movement into the prompt. Instead of “Canyon”, change the prompt to “River carving through rock to create a canyon”.
If possible, modify the game to a version of ENSEMBLE SQUASH at this point. It may be best to have one group demonstrate this modification to the rest of the group. Now, instead of adding on the “environment” one at a time, students in small groups will have a limited amount of time to quickly create the shape and movement of the environment simultaneously. This also allows multiple groups to play at the same time, if desired and space allows.
Sidecoaching is very important in the exercise. Keep the pace and the energy level up in order to keep students focused and engaged in the activity, Praise them for creative solutions. Always relate the landform back to the force which created it!
If playing inside, there are LOTS of helpful resources that could be used with the smart board while students are playing to help provide a visual a well as verbal definition of these forces:
- Awesome interactive game! http://sciencenetlinks.com/interactives/forces.html
The processes for building new land are called constructive forces. Three of the main constructive forces are crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and deposition of sediment.
Crustal deformation occurs when the shape of land (or crust) is changed or deformed. One of the main causes is movement of the Earth’s plates. When the plates collide or push toward each other, pressure builds. This can cause two things to happen. The rock can either fold or fault.
- Folding: Imagine the tremendous force created when two of the Earth’s plates collide! Over time, the pressure can cause rock to fold. When that happens, the rock gets pushed up, and mountains are formed.
- Faults: Sometimes, when plates collide, the Earth’s crust can crack, or fracture. A fault is formed. Along the crack, or fault line, the rock is being pushed together. Sooner or later, the pressure has to be released. When that happens, the result is an earthquake.
So far, we’ve only looked at ways that land is built up. In order for new rocks to be created, older ones must be destroyed.
Land is broken down by destructive forces. These forces are at work all the time. Because they work slowly, it is sometimes hard to notice their effect. Without them, however, new rock could never be formed. The two main destructive forces are weathering and erosion.
- Weathering: the breaking down of rocks through exposure to the atmosphere. There are two basic types of weathering: mechanical and chemical.
- Mechanical weathering takes place when rocks are broken apart. For example, water in rocks will freeze and thaw based on air temperatures. This causes the water to contract and expand, which weakens the rock. Over time, the rock breaks down.
- Chemical weathering causes rocks to weaken. When iron meets water it rusts. The same thing happens to the iron in a rock. When it rusts, or oxidizes, the rock gets weaker, and sooner or later it breaks down.
- Erosion: the process by which rock particles are moved. Water, wind, ice, and gravity can all cause sediment to break away from rocks.